职称英语(理工) 问题列表
问题 She was the one in the whole class who was eligible to apply for the scholarship.A: competitive B: diligent C: qualified D: competent

问题 共用题干 The Tough Grass That Sweetens Our LivesSugar cane was once a wild grass that grew in New Guinea and was used by local people for roofing their houses and fencing their gardens. Gradually a different variety evolved which contained sucrose(蔗糖)and was chewed on for its sweet taste. Over time,sugar cane became a highly valuable commercial plant,grownthroughout the world. _________(46)Sugar became a vital ingredient in all kinds of things ,from confectionery(糖果点心)to medicine , and, as the demand for sugar grew ,the industry became larger and more profitable.__________(47)Many crops withered(枯萎)and died,despite growers' attempts to save them ,and there were fears that the health of the plant would continue to deteriorate.In the 1960s ,scientists working in Barbados looked for ways to make the commercial species stronger and more able to resist disease. They experimented with breeding programmes,mixing genes from the wild species of sugar cane,which tends to be tougher, with genes from the more delicate,commercial type. ___________(48)This sugar cane is not yet ready to be sold commercially,but when this happens,it is expected to he incredibly profitable for the industry.____________ (49)Brazil , which produces one quarter of the world's sugar, has coordinated an intema- tional project under Professor Paulo Arrudo of the Universidade Estaudual de Campinas in Sao Paulo. Teams of experts have worked with him to discover more about which parts of the genetic structure of the plant are important for the production of sugar and its overall health.Despite all the research ,however, we still do not fully understand how the genes function in sugar cane.___________(50)This gene is particularly exciting because it makes the plant resistant to rust,a disease which probably originated in India,but is now capable of infecting sugar cane across the world.Scientists believe they will eventually be able to grow a plant which cannot be destroyed by rust.________(49)A:Since the 1960s,scientists have been analysing the mysteries of the sugar cane'S genetic code.B:Unfortunately,however,the plant started to become weaker and more prone to disease.C:The majority of the world'5 sugar now comes firm this particular commercial species.D:One major gene has been identified by Dr Angelique D'Hont and her team in Montpeller,France.E:Eventually,a commercial plant was developed which was 5 percent sweeter than before,but also much stronger and less likely to die from disease.F: Sugar cane is now much more vigorous and the supply of sugar is therefore more guaranteed.

问题 These are the motives for doing it.A:reasons B:excuses C:answers D:replies

问题 共用题干 High-Tech Warfare(战争)Today,high-tech warfare is no longer an abstract concept,but a real issue. Technology_______(1)tactics,sociology,and the development of weaponry(武器).it also causes the changes in battles.Then what are the new characteristics of modern battles_______(2)by the application of high technologies?High-tech warfare naturally includes high technology.In modern battles,a single kind of weapon can hardly be_______(3).Various weaponry,such as intelligence detection and information processing,should_______(4)well with each other. Aerial(航空的)weaponry becomes the main force in battles in the sky. Precision homing(精确制导)weaponry like cruise missiles and missiles_______(5) satellite homing systems becomes the main attack weapons.Battle control systems play a dominant role. Various weapons and logistics(后勤) systems are_______(6)into a comprehensive framework,centrally representing the modern high-tech weaponry,Depending on various_______(7)equipment and means in electronic warfare,our army will not be passively beaten._______(8)the battlefield , high-tech warfare has created a type of non-linear(非线性的)chaos. Because of the use of long-range precision weaponry,the opposite parties in warfare can't "touch"or"see"each other,and distance is no longer the decisive factor affecting the_______(9)of baffles.It is hard to clearly define the lines between the frontier and the rear,as well as attack and defense. The traditional three-dimensional air-sea battlefield will be_______(10)by the multi一dimensional battlefield composed of air,sea,magnetic,electrical and information battlefields.No large-scale movements can be conducted_______(11).Because modern weaponry systems are closely related to chains of demand and communication and electronic technology,the parties_______(12)have to pay attention to the usufruct(使用权)and control of electromagnetic frequency spectrum. So electronic warfare becomes_______(13)important and the necessary guarantee of victory. Whatever _________ (14) warfare goes to and whatever cloak(宽大外衣)it wears,it always violates peace and brings the world bloodshed(流血).Most people think of high technology as a_______(15)to enhance their lives,and they don't wish it to be used to destroy lives._________(2)A:brought B:processed C:studied D:shared

问题 共用题干 Cloning(克隆):Future Perlect?1 A clone is an exact copy of a plant or animal produced from any one cell.Since Scottish scientists reported that they had managed to clone a sheep named Dolly in 1997,research into cloning has grown rapidly.In May 1998,scientists in Massachusetts managed to create two identical calves(牛犊)using cloning technology. A mouse has also been cloned successfully.But the debate over cloning humans really started when Chicago physicist Richard Seed made a surprising announcement:"We will have managed to clone a human being within the next two years."he told the world.2 Seed's announcement provoked a lot of media attention,most of it negative,In Europe, nineteen nations have already signed an agreement banning human cloning and in the U.S. the President announced:"We will be introducing a law to ban all human cloning and many states in the U. S. will have passed anti-cloning laws by the end of the year."3 Many researchers are not so negative about cloning.They are worried that laws banning human cloning will threaten important research.In March,The New England Journal of Medicine called any plan to ban research on cloning humans seriously mistaken.Many researchers also believe that in spite of attempts to ban it,human cloning will have become routine by 2010 because it is impossible to stop the progress of science.4 Is there reason to fear that cloning will lead to a nightmare world?The public has been bombarded(轰炸)with newspaper articles, television shows and films, as well as cartoons.Such information is often misleading,and makes people wonder what on earth the scientists will be doing next.5 Within the next five to ten years scientists will probably have found a way of cloning humans.It could be that pretty soon we will be able to choose the person that we want our child to look like,But how would it feel to be a clone among hundreds,the anti-cloners ask. Pretty cool, answer the pro-cloners(赞成克隆的人).Within ten years scientists wil!probably have_______.A:the nucleus of a cellB:cloned human beingsC:a human being in two yearsD:a law to ban human cloningE:a report on human cloningF:heavy media coverage

问题 共用题干 第一篇Putting Plants to WorkUsing the power of the sun is nothing new.People have had solar-powered calculators and buildings withsolar panels(太阳能电池板)for decades. But plants are the real experts. They' ve been using sunlight as anenergy source for billions of years.Cells in the green leaves of plants work like tiny factories to convert sunlight, carbon dioxide(二氧化 碳),and water into sugarsand starche(淀粉),stored energy that the piants can use. This conversion process is called photosynthesis (光合作用)Unfortunately, unless you' re a plant, it's difficult and expensive to convert sunlight into storable energy. That's why scientists are taking a closer look at exactly how plants do it.Some scientists are trying to get plants,or biological cells that act like plants, to work as very small photosynthesic power stations. For example, Maria Ghirardi of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden. Cobo.,is working with green algae(水藻).She's trying to trick them into producing hydrogen instead of sugars when they perform photosynthesis. Once the researchers can get the algae working efficient- ly ,the hydrogen that they produce could be used to power fuel cells in cars or to generate electricity.The algae are grown in narrow-necked glass bottles to produce hydrogen in the lab. During photosynthe- sis , plants normally make sugars or strchds. "But under certain conditions,a lot of algae are able to use the sunlight energy not to store starch , but to make hydrogen."Ghirardi says. For example ,algae will produce hy-drogen in an airfree environment. It' s the oxygen in the air that prevents algae from making hydrogen most of the time.Working in an airfree environment, however, is difficult. It's not a practical way to produce cheap energy. But Ghirardi and her colleagues have discovered that by removing a chemical called sulfate(硫酸盐) from the environment that the algae grow in, they will make hydrogen instead of sugars,even when air is present.Unfortunately, removing the sulfate also makes the algae's cells work very slowly,and not much hydrogen is produced. Still ,the researchers see this as a first step in their goal to produce hydrogen efficiently from algae. With more work,they may be able to speed the cells' activity and produce larger quantities of hydrogen.The researchers hope that algae will one day be an easy-to-use fuel source. The organisms are cheap to get and to feed, Ghirardi says,and they can grow almost anywhere:"You can grow them in a reactor, in a pond. You can grow them in the ocean. There's a lot of flexibility in how you can use these organisms." Researchers find it difficult to make algae produce hydrogen efficiently because_______________.A:it is hard to create an airfree environmentB:it is expensive to remove the sulfate from the environmentC:removing the sulfate slows down hydrogen productionD:the algae's cells work slowly if there is no oxygen in the air

问题 共用题干 The Biology of MusicHumans use music as a powerful way to communicate.It may also play an important role in love.But what is music,and how does it work its magic?Science does not yet have all the answers.What are two things that make humans different from animals?One is language,and the other is music. It is true that some animals.can sing(and many birds sing better than a lot of people).However,the songs of animals,such as birds and whales,are very limited.It is also true that humans,not animals,have developed musical instruments.Music is strange stuff.It is clearly different from language.However,people can use.music to communicate things-especially their emotions.When music is combined with speech in a song,it is a very powerfnl form of communication.But,biologically speaking,what is music?If music is truly different from speech,then we should process music and language in different parts of the brain.The scientific evidence suggests that this is true.Sometimes people who suffer brain damage lose their ability to process language.However,they don't automatically(自动地)lose their musical abilities.For example , Vissarion Shebalin , a Russian composer , had a stroke(中风)in 1953.It injured the left side of his brain.He could no longer speak or understand speech.He could,however,still compose music until his death ten years later.On the other hand,sometimes strokes cause people to lose their musical ability,but they can still speak and understand speech.This shows that the brain processes music and language separately.By studying the physical effects of music on the body,scientists have also learned a lot about how music influences the emotions.But why does music have such a strong effect on us?That is a harder question to answer.Geoffrey Miller,a researcher at University College,London,thinks that music and love have a strong connection.Music requires -special talent,practice,and physical ability.That's why it may be a way of showing your fitness to be someone's mate.For example,singing in tune or playing a musical instrument requires fine muscular control.You also need a good memory to remmher the notes(音符).And playing or singing those notes correctly suggests that your hearing is in excellent condition.Finally,when a man sings to the woman he loves(or vice versa),it may be a way of showing off.However,Miller's theory still doesn't explain why certain combinations of sounds influence our emotions so deeply.For scientists,this is clearly an area that needs fuither research.Humans are different from animals because_____.A:they have different languages and musicB:they have different languages and communicationsC:they have different songs and languagesD:they have different music and songs

问题 共用题干 If you made a list of all the jobs performed by the different kinds of energy,you would fill many pages.Nuclear energy is used in some areas of the United States.But there are dangers.Waste materials from nuclear______(51)would destroy life if they leaked______(52)the land.When nuclear energy is produced,a lot of______(53)is produced,too,50 a flow of lake or ocean water 15 used to cool the operations.Then the water______(54)to its source.If the returning water were too hot,it would destroy fish and other______(55).Cow manure is being used to produce a kind of______(56).The manure from farms is put into a machine to convert it to a liquid.Then the gas 15 formed______(57)a natural process.If the converter were not 50______(58)at the present time,it would be used in many places to provide______(59).Garbage has become an energy source.It______(60)to oil,steam,or electricity,or it is used on the land.But recent______(61)about power supplies has led to increased interest in the use of wind______(62)a source of electrical power.Windmills are clean and they______(63)no waste.And they use a______(64)resource.Some scientists consider that wind energy systems can fulfill a valuable______(65)in meeting the energy needs of industrialized nations and of the developing world._________(61)A:consideration B:thoughtC:concern D:interest

问题 共用题干 第三篇Houses in 18th Century North AmericaSeventeenth-century houses in colonial North America were simple structures that were primarily functional,carrying over traditional designs that went back to the Middle Ages.During the first half of the eighteenth century,however,houses began to show a new elegance.As wealth increased, more and more colonists built fine houses.Since architecture was not yet a specialized profession in the colonies,the design of buildings was left either to amateur designers or to carpenters who undertook to interpret architectural manuals imported from England.Inventories of colonial libraries show an astonishing number of these handbooks for builders,and the houses erected during the eighteenth century show their influence.Nevertheless,most domestic architecture of the first three-quarters of the eighteenth century displays a wide divergence of taste and freedom of application of the rules laid down in these books.Increasing wealth and growing sophistication throughout the colonies resulted in houses of improved design,whether the material was wood,stone or brick.New England still favored wood, though brick houses became common in Boston and towns, where the danger of fire gave an impetus to the use of more durable material. A few houses in New England were built of store,but only in Pennsylvania and adjacent area was stone widely used in dwellings.An increased use of brick in houses and outbuildings is noticeable in Virginia and Maryland,but wood remained the most popular material even in houses built by wealthy landowners.In the Carolinas,even in closely packed Charleston,wooden houses were much more common than brick.Eighteenth-century houses showed great interior improvement over their predecessors.Windows were made larger and shutters removed.Large,clear panes replaced the small leaded glass of the seventeenth century.Doorways were larger and more decorative.Fireplaces became decorative features of rooms.Walls were made of plaster or wood,sometimes elaborately paneled.White paint began to take the place of blues,yellows,greens,and lead colors,which had been popular for walls in the earlier years.After about 1730,advertisements for wallpaper styles in scenic patterns began to appear in colonial newspapers.What does the author imply about the use of wallpaper before 1730?A:Wallpaper samples appeared in the architectural manuals.B:Wallpaper was the same color as the paints used.C:Patterned wallpaper was not widely used.D:Wallpaper was not in stone houses.

问题 共用题干 The Caffeine HabitThere are more than 170 million drug addicts in the U.S.,and the strange thing is that you can becounted as one of them.You consume your drug of choice every day;you'd feel ill if you couldri't have it; you'd have a hard time quitting it._______________(46)And if you think you get it only in coffee,tea,coca cola,or in smaller bite of choco-[ate,you haven'tbeen paying attention.Food manufacturers recognize a hot market when they see it,andwith anywhere from 55%to 90%of the U.S.population consuming caffeine every day. _______________(47)The popular Red Bull energy drink is one of them,and others like caffeine-infused gum,mints,beer,candy,even soap一which is supposed to provide its caffeine boost through the skin.Regular amount of caffeine has been the subject of endless medical studies.We know caffeine could work effectively by controlling neurotransmitters that would normally make you sleepy,improving cognitive Function and even athletic performance.________________(48)"Exactly what level of caffeine is harmful is not clearly established,but generally more than five cups of coffee is too much,"said physiologist Harris Lieber-man from U.S.Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine,who has been studying the effects of caffeine for more than 20 years."It's typically possible to die from a caffeine overuse,but,"says Dr. EricLavonas, a North Carolina emergency-room doctor,"you have to really work at it." _______________(49)Bill Bradley,in 2000 presidential candidate,attributed his irregular heartbeat to caffeine overuse.In a country of caffeine addicts,it's unlikely that you'll never develop a serious problem,and therearen't any repair centers for coffee dependence._______________(50)The highest caffeine boost can be felt one hour following input,but significant effects can last for eight hours.If you're at risk for heart disease or digestive disorders,talk to your doctor about how much caffeine you should be drinking. Like any pleasurable substance,caffeine can be abused.So enjoy一but with care._________(50)A:Depending on the study,the stuff now is turning up everywhere.B:The chemical that has you addicted,of course,is caffeine.C:But how much is too much?D:Far more common are people who simply fall ill from eating or drinking too much of that stuff.E:Here are seven tips to loosen the death grip of caffeine addiction.F: So the best advice is to know your limits.

问题 Poor people queued up to wait for free food.A:lined B:stood C:got D:registered

问题 共用题干 Energy and Public LandsThe United States boasts substantial energy resources. Federal lands provide a good deal of US energy production,the US Department of the Interior manages federal energy leasing (租赁)both on land and on the offshore Outer Continental Shelf Production from these sources amounts to nearly 30 percent of total annual US energy production.In 2000,32 percent of US oil,35 percent of natural gas,and 37 percent of coal were pro-duced from federal lands,representing 20,000 producing oil and gas leases and 135 producing coal leases. Federal lands are also estimated to contain approximately 68 percent of all undis-covered US oil reserves and 74 percent of undiscovered natural gas.Revenues from federal oil,gas,and coal leasing provide significant returns to US taxpayers as well as State Government. In 1999,for example,$553 million in oil and gas revenues were paid to the US Treasury,and non-India coal leases accounted for over$304 million in revenues,of which 50 percent were paid to State governments. Public lands also play a critical role in energy delivery. Each year , federal land managers authorize(许可)rights of way for transmission lines , rail systems , pipe-lines,and other facilities related to energy production and use.Alternative energy production from federal lands falls behind conventional energy pro-duction , though the amount is still significant. For example , federal geothermal(地热)re-sources produce about 7. 5 billion kilowatt-hours(千瓦时)of electricity per year,47 percent of all electricity generated from US geothermal energy. There are 2,960 wind turbines on public lands in California alone,producing electricity for about 300,000 people. Federal hydropower (水电)facilities produce about 17 percent of all hydropower produced in the United States.Because of the growing US thirst for energy and increasing public unease with depend-ence on foreign off sources,pressure on public lands to meet US energy demand is becoming more intense. Public lands are available for energy development only after they have been evaluated through the land use planning process.If development of energy resources conflicts with management or use of other resources,development restrictions or impact moderation measures may be enforced,or mineral be banned altogether.What is the main idea of this passage?A: Public lands are one of the main sources of revenues.B: Public lands should be developed to ease energy shortage.C: Public lands play an important role in energy production.D: Public lands store huge energy resources for further development.

问题 共用题干 “Liquefaction” Key to Much of Japanese Earthquake DamageThe massive subduction zone earthquake in Japan caused a significant level of soil“liquefaction” that has surprised researchers with its1severity,a new analysis shows.“We've seen localized examples of soil liquefaction as extreme as this before,but the distance and2of damage in Japan were unusually severe,”said Scott Ashford,a professor of geotechnical engineering at Oregon State University.“Entire structures were tilted and sinking into the sediments,”Ashford said.“The shifts in soil destroyed water,drain and gas pipelines,crippling the utilities and infrastructure these communities need to3. We saw some places that sank as much as four feet.”Some degree of soil liquefaction is common in almost any major earthquake. It's a phenomenon in which soils soaked with water,particularly recent sediments or sand,can lose much of their4and flow during an earthquake. This can allow structures to shift or sink or5.But most earthquakes are much6than the recent event in Japan,Ashford said. The length of the Japanese earthquake,as much as five minutes,may force researchers to recon-sider the extent of liquefaction damage possibly occurring in situations such as this.“With such a long-lasting earthquake,we saw7structures that might have been okay after 30 seconds just continued to sink and tilt as the shaking continued for several more minutes,”he said.“And it was clear that younger sediments,and especially areas built on8filled ground,are much more vulnerable.”The data provided by analyzing the Japanese earthquake,researchers said,should make it possible to improve the understanding of this soil9and better prepare for it in the future.Ashford said it was critical for the team to collect the information quickly,10damage was removed in the recovery efforts.“There's no doubt that we'll learn things from what happened in Japan that will help us to reduce risks in other similar11,”Ashford said.“Future construction in some places may make more use of techniques known to reduce liquefaction,such as better compaction to make soils dense,or use of reinforcing stone columns.”Ashford pointed out that northern California have younger soils vulnerable to liquefac-tion一on the coast,near river deposits or in areas with filled ground. The“young”sedi-ments,in geologic terms,may be those12within the past 10,000 years or more. In Ore-gon,for instance,that describes much of downtown Portland,the Portland International Airport and other cities.Anything13a river and old flood plains is a suspect,and the Oregon Department of Transportation has already concluded that 1,100 bridges in the state are at risk from an earthquake.Fewer than 15 percent of them have been reinforced to14collapse. Japan has suffered tremendous losses in the March 11 earthquake,but Japanese construction15 helped prevent many buildings from collapse一even as they tilted and sank into the ground.14._________A: prevent B: accelerate C: predict D: detect

问题 共用题干 Memory Test1 "I am going to give you five techniques that will enable you to remember anything youneed to know at school,"promised lecturer Ian Robinson to a hundred schoolchildren.He slapped his hand down on the table."When I've finished in two hours' time,your work will be far more effective and productive.Anyone not interested, leave now."The entire room sat still.2 Robinson calls himself the Mind Magician(魔术师).He specializes in doing magic tricks that look totally impossible,and then he reveals that they involve nothing more mysteriousthan good old-fashioned trickery(骗术)."I have always been interested in tricks involving memory-being able to reel off(一口气说出)the order of cards in a pack, that sort of thing," he explains.3 Robinson was already lecturing to schools on his magic techniques when it struck him that students might find memory techniques even more valuable."It wasn't a difficult area to move into,as the stuff's all there in books."So he summarized everything to make a two-hour lecture about five techniques.4 "You want to learn a list of a hundred things?A thousand?No problem,"saysRobinson.The scandal is that every child is not taught the techniques from the beginning oftheir school life.The schoolchildren who were watching him thought it was brilliant."I wish I'd been told this earlier,"commented Mark,after Robinson had shown them how to construct"mental journeys".5 Essentially, you visualize(想象)a walk down a street, or a trip round a room,and pick the points where you will put the things you want to remember一the lamppost,the fruit bowl. Then in each location you put a visual representation of your list一phrasal verbs,historical dates,whatever一making them as strange as possible.It is that simple,and it works.6 The reaction of schools has been uniformly enthusiastic."The pupils benefited enormously from lan's presentation,"says Dr Johnston,head of the school where Robinson was speaking."Ideally we should run a regular class in memory techniques so pupils can pick it up gradually."Paragraph 4_______A:Good resultsB:An ancient skillC:Gaining attentionD:Memory tricksE:A lecture on memory techniquesF:Ways to improve memory

问题 共用题干 The Cold PlacesThe Arctic is a polar region.It surrounds the North Pole.Like Antarctica,the Arctic is a land of ice and snow. Antarctica holds the record for a low temperature reading一125 degrees Fahrenheit below zero.Reading of 85 degrees below zero is common in both the Arctic and Antarctica. Winter temperatures average 30 degrees below zero in the Arctic. At the South Pole the winter average is about 73 degrees below zero.One thing alone makes it almost impossible for men to live in Antarctica and in parts of the Arctic.This one thing is the low temperature一the killing chill of far North and the polar South.To survive,men must wear the warmest possible clothing. They must build windproof shelters. They must keep heaters going at all times.Not even for a moment can they be unprotected against the below-zero temperatures.Men have a way of providing for themselves.Polar explorers wrap themselves in warm coats and furs.The cold makes life difficult. But the explorers can stay alive.What about animals?Can they survive?Do we find plants?Do we find life in the Arctic and in Antarctica?Yes,we do.There is life in the oceans.There is life on land.Antarctica,as we have seen,is a cold place indeed.But this has not always been the case. Expedition scientists have discovered that Antarctica has not always been a frozen continent. At one time the weather in Antarctica may have much like our own.Explorers have discovered coal in Antarctica. This leads them to believe that Antarctica at one time was a land of swamps and forests.Heat and moisture must have kept the trees in the forests alive.At one time,the weather in Antarctica was so warm and damp that trees grew there.A:Right B:Wrong C: Not mentioned