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问题 Text 3 If you're tired of swiping left and right to approve or reject the faces of other people,try something else:rating scientific papers.A web application inspired by the dating app Tinder lets you make snap judgments about preprints-papers published online before peer review-simply by swiping left,right,up,or down.Papr brands itself as"Tinder for preprints"and is almost as superficial as the matchmaker.For now,you only get to see abstracts,not the full papers,and you have to rate them in one of four categories:"exciting and probable,""exciting and questionable,""boring and probable,"or"boring and questionable."Papr co-creator Jeff Leek,a biostatistician at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health,released an earlier version of Papr late last year but only started publicizing the app on social media earlier this month after his colleagues added a few more features,including a recommendation engine that suggests studies based on your preferences,an option to download your ratings along with links to the full preprints on bioRxiv,and suggestions for Twitter users with similar tastes as yours.What we want is to help researchers navigate the overwhelming number ofnew papers and uncover interdisciplinary overlap,Leek says.Scientists already use social media to discover new papers,he says;Papr aims to simplify that process and capture people's evaluations along the way.Four rating categories is enough,Leek says;other services,including PubPeer,offer space for longer comments and discussions.To prevent readers from giving their rivals'papers bad ratings or rate a paper as interesting just because it was written by a famous scientist,Papr doesn't show author names and doesn't let you search for a specific preprint or author."For me,the importance of Papr is illustrating that preprint services like bioRxiv enable novel methods of evaluation to emerge,"says Brian Nosek,executive director of the Center for Open Science in Charlottesville,Virginia."We don't believe that the data we are collecting is any kind of realistic peer review,but it does tell us something about the types of papers people find interesting and what leads them to be suspicious,"Leek says."Ultimately we hope to correlate this data with information about where the papers are published and other more in-depth measurements of paper quality."But don't take Papr too seriously,because its developers don't."This app is provided solely for entertainment of the scient讯c community and may be taken down at any time with no notice because Jeff gets tired ofit,"the Papr website says.32.According to Leek,the goal of Papr is toA.find similar Tweeter users. B.replace social medias to find new papers. C.ease the papers search and get them rated. D.provide more papers to users.

问题 In June,California department of forestry and fire protection determined that 12 devastating fires that struck Northern California tate last year were the result of trees coming into contact with power lines or other problems tied to the electric utility PG&E.Thanks to a policy known as inverse conclemnation,the utility could be on the hook for those damages,even if ii is not found to be negligeni.In the past,PG&-E has paid the bills when it was blamed for fires and other damages.But the company now says it cannot keep footing the bill so long as climate change continues to increase the likelihood of fires.Millions of trees have died across California after years of intense drought.creating vast quantities of fuel that allow fires to burn faster and over greater clistances-all combined with higher temperatures.It has pushed to raise electricity rates to pay for tlie clamage.Meanwhile.state officials are pushing a change in the law.Governor Jerry Brown proposed a new plan ihat would allow a court to decide whether the utility acted"reasonably"before forcing the company to pay claims."Costly wildfires and natural disasters have the poiential to undermine the sysiem*"Brown told legislators."leaving our energy sector in a state of weakness at a time when it shoulcl be making even greater investments in safety."Within the U.S.,the debate over liability for climate change has taken several forms.On the fecleral level,proactive policymakers have pushed to rework the National Flood Insurance Program(NFIP),which pays people to rebuild their homes after floods-even in areas where damage is likely to strike again.In effect,that program,which is more than$20 billion in clebt,put.s the burden of climate-change-related natural disasters in the hands of the U.S.government ancl the taxpayer.Infrastructure experts have also pushed the government to rethink its post disaster funding to require climate change preparedness measures.A group of pioneering American cities have sought to have the oil-and-gas industry pay for climate-change-relatecl clamages and disaster-prevention measures.A series of lawsuits have blamed the companies for years of polluting the planet while concealing evidence that emissions would contribute to devastaiing climate change.The authorities behind the lawsuits hope that courts will force the industry to pay up.Thus far,U.S.courts have expressed skepticism-not necessarily of the fault of oil and gas but of the ability of the judicial system to address the issue."The problem deserves a solution on a more vast scale than can be supplied by a district judge or jury in a public nuisance case,"wrote William Alsup of the U.S.District Court in Northern California.Elsewhere,a large number of litigants have also looked to the courts.Lacking other avenues for addressing the issue,people feeling the impacts of climate change are increasingly Lurning to courts to help find a global answer to a global problem. To which of the following would William Alsup most probably agree?A.The oil-and-gas industry should pay for climate-change-related damages. B.Climate change should not be viewed as the faulr of oil and gas. C.The problem of a warming planet is too big for the courts to solve. D.The judicial system has the responsibility to settle greenhouse-gas-related disputes.

问题 Warren Buffett,who will host Berkshire Hathaway's annual shareholders'meeting on May 3rd,is an icon of American capitalism.At 83,he also epitomizes a striking demographic(1):for highly skilled people to go on working well into(2)was once thought to be old age.Across the rich world,well-educated people(3)work longer than the less-skilled.Some 65%o of American menaged 62-74 with a professional degree are in the(4)compared with 32%of men with only a high-school certificate.In the European Union the pattern is similar This(5)is part of a deepening divide between the well-educated(6)and the unskilled poor that is slicing(7)all age groups.Rapid innovation has raised the incomes of the highly skilled while(8)those of the unskilled.Those at the top are working longer hours each year than those at the bottom(9)the l1-qualified are extending their working lives,compared with those of less-educated people.The(10)for individuals and society,are profound The world is on the(11)rise in the number of old people,and they will live longer than ever efore.(12)the next 20 years the global population of those aged 65 or more will almost double from 600m to 1.1 billion The(13)of the 20th century,when greater longevity translated into more years in retirement(14)more years at work,has persuaded many observers that this shift will(15)slower economic growth and"secular stagnation",while the(16)ranks of pensioners will bust government budgets But the notion of a sharp division between the working young and the(17)old misses a new trend,the(18)gap between the skilled and the unskilled.Employment rates are falling among younger unskilled people,(19)older skilled folk are working longer.The divide is most extreme in America,where well-educated baby-boomers are(20)retirement while many less-skilled youn but overseas job markets and foreign government policies favor technology experts From a long-term perspective,it is a positive thing that more than 80 percent of those who pursue education overseas return to China after completing their studies and contribute to the country's economy But the notion of a sharp division between the working young and the(17)old misses a new trend,the(18)gap between the skilled and the unskilled.Employment rates are falling among younger unskilled people,(19)older skilled folk are working longer.The divide is most extreme in America,where well-educated baby-boomers are(20)retirement while many less-skilled younger people have dropped out of the workforce.(4)选?A.house B.college C.workforce D.retirement

问题 Even accepting that translation is technically possible,there is still the matter of its place in the literary hierarchy.Darkening any gloss on translation is the shadow of the original text,towering up"like a lifeless block of resistance."The dividing line between original and translation has been one of the assumed constants of translation theory and commentary,as jealously guarded as the frontier between two hostile nations,and rarely challenged.This supposedly inviolable border,however,is not an eternal truth:for centuries,from the Romans down to Chaucer and Shakespeare,it was common for so-called original works to incorporate large portions of texts from other languages.Around the early seventeenth century,however,attitudes began to change.Not only did the distinction between original and translation harden,but the sacred authoritv of the original was established.One reason for this attitude js technological:the rise of the printing press and the printed book brought forward the identity of the book's creator,which prioritized the notion of authorship and along with it the author's claim of copyright.Another is philosophical,stemming from both Biblical tradition and the Platonic notion of poetry as being divinely inspired and therefore levels above any attempt to replicate it.Finally,and regardless of the translator's talent,perhaps the most resistant aspect of the divide between translation and original derives from the fact that translation,by introducing one or more additional actors into the process,poses an uncomfortable challenge to our most deep-seated and cherished notions of how art is created.If we consider a work of art to be the unique expression of the artist's inner resources,then any adaptation of it,any reworking by an outside agency can only be seen as a pale imitation,more or less indicative of the"real thing"but by definition inferior to it.Rather than see this as a drawback,I recommend we consider it a liberation,an acknowledgment that the translator,freed from the unpleasant task of trying to establish exact equivalences,can now concentrate on the much more rewarding,and perfectly possible,task of doing justice to the source text by bringing her own talents to its cause.Again,this is not to say that there's no significant difference between a translation and its source.What we can question is the longstanding value system,by recognizing what the translator's literary skills bring to the mix.To present a work as aptly as possible,to re-create it in all its beauty and ugliness,takes sensitivity,empathy,flexibility,attentiveness,and tact.And,perhaps most of all,it takes respect for one's own work,the belief that one's translation is worth judging on its own merits(or flaws),and that,if done properly,it can stand shoulder to shoulder with the source text.

问题 Many experts believe that in the new world of artificial intelligence(AI)human beings will still be needed to do the jobs that require higher-order critical,creative,and innovative thinking and the jobs that require high emotional engagement to meet the needs of other human beings.The 1 for many of us is that we do not excel at those skills because of our natural cognitive and emotional tendencies:We are confirmation-seeking thinkers and ego-affirmation-seeking defensive reasoners.We will need to overcome those tendencies 2 take our thinking,listening,relating,and collaborating skills to a much higher level.This process of 3 begins with changing our definition of what it means to"be smart."4,many of us have achieved success 5 being"smarter"than other people as 6 by grades and test scores,beginning in our early days in school.AI will change that because there is no 7 any human being can outsmart,8,IBM's Watson,at least without augmentation,Smart machines can process,9,and recall information faster and better than we humans.10.AI can pattern-match faster and produce a wider array of alternatives than we can.AI can even learn faster.In an age of smart machines,our old definition of what makes a person smart doesn't 11.What is needed is a new definition of being smart,one that 12 higher levels of human thinking and emotional engagement.The new smart will be determined not by what or how you know 13 by the quality of your thinking,listening,relating,collaborating,and learning.Quantity is 14 by quality.We will spend more time training to be open-minded and learning to update our beliefs in 15 to new data.We will practice 16 after our mistakes,and we will invest more in the skills traditionally 17 with emotional intelligence.The new smart will be about trying to overcome the two big 18 0f critical thinking and team collaboration:our ego and our fears.Doing so will make it easier to perceive reality as it is,rather than as we 19 it to be.In short,we will embrace humility.That is 20 we humans will add value in a world of smart technology. 1选?A.controversy B.challenge C.opportunity D.compromise

问题 Retrofitting houses to use less energy should be a no-brainer for homeowners.(1)time,money spent on ways to reduce heat loss from draughty houses should produce a(2)return in lower fuel bills.In practice,many are cautious.Some improvements,such as solid-wall insulation and solar panels,can take over 25 years to(3)their initial cost.Few owners are willing to wait that long by then many are likely to have(4)and moved on Several governments have started finance schemes designed to(5)this problem.Since 2008 PaCE programmes have offered American homeowners loans to(6)improvements,repaid through higher local taxes on the property,(7)it belongs to.In Britain,the Green Deal offers loans over a 25-year period,with repayments added to energy bills.Countries including France and Canada have similar(8)In theory,these schemes should boost investment in common energy-saving measures,such as extra insulation and new boilers,(9)the first owner does not have to pay all the costs in advance But enrolment rates have(10),according to Sean Kidney at the Climate Bonds Initiative,a think tank.In Britain,just 1%of those assesseed for the Green Deal have signed up.In Berkeley,California,home of the first PACe scheme,the(11)rate is similarly low.Homeowners are(12)chiefly because the interest rates on the loans look high.The Green Deal charges 7%;some PaCe schemes a hefty 8%.As these rates are fixed for decades,they will(13)look unattractive when(as now)short-term interest rates are low Many people also(14)they will save enough on their energy bills to cover the repayments Fc or instance(15)in britain that installing loft insulation can cut energy bills by 20%have been dented by a government study that found it(16)gas consumption by only 1.7%on average.Others fear that green loans may reduce the value of their home.In America,firms that underwn mortgages are(17)PACE loans Green loans have not been a failure everywhere.Around 250,000 households in Germany(18)for them each year.They do so(19)they need pay only 1%interest on them each year thanks to an annual public subsidy of 1.5 billion.Whether that is a(an)(20)use of taxpayers’money is another question(16)选?A.reduced B.produced C.increased D.decline

问题 The Chinese Women Volleyball Team won five( )world champions.A.successive B.consecutive C.excessive D.immense

问题 The music industry and You Tube are set to go head-to-head this week in a crucial vote in brussels that could force the digital giant to pay billions of dollars in fees to popular artists such as Taylor Swift Ed Sheeran and Katy Perry.For years the music industry has argued that You Tube exploits the lack of legal protection around music videos being viewed on its service to pay minimal amounts to artists and labels YouTube got a bloody nose in last months vote but its supporters are expected to gather the MEPs needed to challenge that decision and force a vote by all 751 members of the parliament Last month's vote was a fantastic result,but I'm sure there will be some push back.YouTube is the biggest music service,full stop,by some margin and has been a severe imbalance in what artists receive.It is righting a wrong really.said Martin Mills,founder of Beggars Group.Taylor Swift has led the fight for artists to get a better share of revenues in the age of the digital music giants.In 2014,she pulled her music from Spotify,saying artists receive a tiny royalty per song play and has been the catalyst for the much better deals struck by record labels with Spotify in the past 18 months“Despacito would probably not have become the global phenomenon it did without YouTube,”says Mark Mulligan,analyst at MIDiA Research.Last year,Luis Fonsi and daddy Yankee's reggaeton hit took the world by storm,becoming the most streamed song of all time You tube is the number one place where young people discover music.If you are going to create global hits you need You Tube and it is becoming more important to musicians."YouTube makes money from advertising and last year paid 856m(&650m)in royalties to music companies-an estimated 67 cents from each of its 1.3 billion music lovers annually.In the UK,record labels and artists earn more than double the royalties from the sale of 4.1m vinyl records than they did from the 25bn music videos watched on YouTube last year Musician Billy Bragg says the battle against You Tube is less about the potential financial windfall that artists might get,and more about making sure the new digital music power players play fair.We,ve all seen how,with the recent data protection legislation,the European Union has shifted power to the individual online,he says.u Now theyre seeking to do the same for artists.All were asking for is a level playing field.rebalancing the power between artists and the internet tech giants who are making massive profits while paying tiny royalties You Tube has made moves to mollify the industry,launching a premium subscription service-two days before the crucial European vote-a move Jean-Michel Jarre,electro-pioneer and president of music body Cisac,has cynically called"indirect lobbying"to try to improve its image The word"catalyst"(Line 3,Para.4)meansA.contributing factor B.refraining element C.adverse effect D.sudden inspiration

问题 Any sufficiently advanced technology,noted Arthur C.Clarke,a British science-fiction writer,is indistinguishable from magic.The fast-emerging technology of voice computing proves his(1)Using it is just like casting a spell say a few words into the air,and a nearby device can(2)your The Amazon Echo,a voice-driven cylindrical computer that sits on a table top and answers to the name Alexa,can(3)music tracks and radio stations,tell jokes,answer trivia questions and control smart(4)even before Christmas it was already resident in about 4%o of American house holds.Voice assistants are(5)in smartphones,too:Apple's Siri(6)over 2 billion commands a week,and 20%of Google(7)on Android powered handsets in America are input by voice Dictating e-mails and text messages now works(8)enough to be useful.Why type when you can talk This is a huge shift.Simple(9)it may seem,voice has the power to transform computing,by providing a natural means of interaction.Windows,icons and menus,and then touchscreens,were welcomed as more(10)ways to deal with computers than entering complex keyboard(11).But being able to talk to computers(12)the need for the abstraction of a user interface"at all(13)mobile phones were more than existing phones without wires,and cars were more than carri-ages without horses,so computers without screens and keyboards have the(14)to be more useful and powerful than people can imagine today Voice will not wholly(15)other forms of input and output.Sometimes it will remain more(16)to converse with a machine by typing rather than talking.But voice is destined to(17)growing share of people's interactions with the technology around them,from washing machines that tell you how much of the cycle they have left to virtual assistants in corporate call-centres.(18)to reach its full potential,the technology requires(19)breakthroughs-and a resolution of the(20)questions it raises around the trade-off between convenience and privacy(18)选?A.Therefore B.However C.Likewise D.Although

问题 On trade,President Donald Trump has launched lots of investigations,withdrawn from one deal and started the renegotiation of another.But this week is the first time he has put up a big new barrier On January 22nd he approved broad and punitive duties,of up to 30%on imports of solar panels and up to 50%on imports of washing machines.His backers say that the measure,which affects aroundS 10bn of imports,will protect American workers.His critics cling to the hope that the damage will be mild.Both are wrong.Start with the claims made by the administration.Workers are also consumers,and Mr Trump's actions will whack them.Tariffs raise prices and dull competition.Whirlpool Corporation,the washing machine maker which asked for the duties,knows as much.When,n 2006,it merged with maytag,arival,it quelled concerns about its high market share by pointing to competition from abroad.One study found that clothes-dryer prices rose by 14%after the merger.For washing machines,where import competition was fiercer,prices were unchanged The solar industry is a clearer case.It has about 260,000 workers,a mere 2,000 of whom were making solar cells and panels at the end of 2016.The government reckons that the fastest-growing occupation over the next ten years will be that of solar installer.The Solar Energy Industries Association,a body that is enraged by the new tariffs,reckons that the industry will support up to 23,000 fewer jobs because of them.Meanwhile,as if to underline the irony,the two companies that asked for protection are unlikely to be saved And do not forget that the tariffs may harm American industry more broadly.Restricting markets for imports tends to spark retaliation that restricts markets for exports-especially when,as with these latest tariffs,they affect everyone.China,supposedly the focus of American ire,produces 60%of the world,solar cells and is responsible for 21%of America's imports.But South Korea will also be hit,and its government is poised to dispute America's action at the World Trade Organisation.Other casualties include Mexico,Canada and the European Union That Mr Trump has stayed within the rules is small comfort:they give him enormous scope to poison world trade.And it would be wrong to skate over the differences between his administration and its predecessors.The last time this particular safeguard was applied was in 2002.It is especially belligerent.Past presidents remained wary of hurting American consumers,and mindful of international repercussions.Mr.Trump,by contrast,seems to hold a steadfast belief that protectionism works.His rhetoric-and now his actions-invite aggrieved petitioners to apply for help.The logic of his stance on trade is to use tariffs not sparingly,but repeatedly and aggressively.Mr Trump is now open for business,just not the healthy sort According to the last paragraph,to which of the following would the author most probably agree?A.Trump is not much different from his predecessors in terms of trade policies B.Though attempting to restrict trade,Trump still considers the publics reaction C.Trump is misleading the American trade with his arbitrary words and actions D.Trump's protectionism will radically alter America's openness to trade

问题 Suppose you are Li Ming,a professor of Peking University.Now write a letter of recommendation for your student Zhang Heng,who is applying for a job in a company Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter.Use"Li Ming"instead.Do not write the address.(10 points)

问题 Many experts believe that in the new world of artificial intelligence(AI)human beings will still be needed to do the jobs that require higher-order critical,creative,and innovative thinking and the jobs that require high emotional engagement to meet the needs of other human beings.The 1 for many of us is that we do not excel at those skills because of our natural cognitive and emotional tendencies:We are confirmation-seeking thinkers and ego-affirmation-seeking defensive reasoners.We will need to overcome those tendencies 2 take our thinking,listening,relating,and collaborating skills to a much higher level.This process of 3 begins with changing our definition of what it means to"be smart."4,many of us have achieved success 5 being"smarter"than other people as 6 by grades and test scores,beginning in our early days in school.AI will change that because there is no 7 any human being can outsmart,8,IBM's Watson,at least without augmentation,Smart machines can process,9,and recall information faster and better than we humans.10.AI can pattern-match faster and produce a wider array of alternatives than we can.AI can even learn faster.In an age of smart machines,our old definition of what makes a person smart doesn't 11.What is needed is a new definition of being smart,one that 12 higher levels of human thinking and emotional engagement.The new smart will be determined not by what or how you know 13 by the quality of your thinking,listening,relating,collaborating,and learning.Quantity is 14 by quality.We will spend more time training to be open-minded and learning to update our beliefs in 15 to new data.We will practice 16 after our mistakes,and we will invest more in the skills traditionally 17 with emotional intelligence.The new smart will be about trying to overcome the two big 18 0f critical thinking and team collaboration:our ego and our fears.Doing so will make it easier to perceive reality as it is,rather than as we 19 it to be.In short,we will embrace humility.That is 20 we humans will add value in a world of smart technology. 18选?A.reflections B.predictors C.inhibitors D.principles.

问题 The non-compete clause has been causing trouble for over 600 years.In 1414 an English court heard the case of John Dyer,an apprentice whose master had stopped him from plying his trade for six months.The judge was having none of it."The contract is contrary to common law,"he ruled.Individuals should be free to pursue the livelihood of their choice.That principle has been diluted in the intervening centuries-most countries give businesses some leeway to use non-compete clauses,whereby workers promise not to start or join firms that go head-to-head with their ex-employer.But their prevalence in America is striking Defenders of these agreements put forward several arguments.One is that non-competes encourage innovation by stopping rivals waltzing off with trade secrets;there is some evidence that levels of investnent are higher at firms where they are used.Another argument is that firms are less likely to train workers if newly skilled employees are able to up sticks and take what they have learned with them to arival.Again,research backs up this claim.a third argument is that firms and employees should be free to contract as they wish he counter-arguments are stronger.The prevalence of non-compete agreements is clear evidence that they are being used indiscriminately.roughly 15 of american employees without a college degree,and a similar share of those earning less than$40,000 a year,are bound by them.Burger-flippers and care-home workers do not have trade secrets to hawk.unp pigr The gains in investment and training must be set against the wider costs.In one study,in Michi-gan,researchers found that workers'job mobility fell by 8%when non-competes were allowed.When people cannot work for another employer who would value their skills,wage growth suffers,too,because people typically achieve the biggest bumps in their salary when they move firm.Non-competes are also associated with a decline in enterprise.One study found that the rate of entry of new firms into knowledge-intensive industries fell by 18 when non-compete clauses could more easily be enforced The costs spill over to all workers-even those who are not subject to non-competes.Young firms are disproportionately important for job growth,for example;if fewer firms are formed,it will affect everyone in the labour market.And non-competes can have a chilling effect even in places that do not Recognise them The drawbacks of non-compete clauses are all the more worrying because of today's business climate.The incentive to invest and train counts for less when,as now,the American economy suffers from a lack of competition.Non-competes are also more worrying when the balance of power between companies and employees are already skewed.The spread of mandatory-arbitration clauses in employment contracts and the decline of trade unions are both signs of that imbalance The expression"spill over to"(Line 1,Para.6)is closest in meaning toA.relate to B.belong to C.are owned b D.are paid by

问题 Prof.White,my respected tutor,frequently reminds me to avail myself( )every chance to improve my English. of

问题 Any sufficiently advanced technology,noted Arthur C.Clarke,a British science-fiction writer,is indistinguishable from magic.The fast-emerging technology of voice computing proves his(1)Using it is just like casting a spell say a few words into the air,and a nearby device can(2)your The Amazon Echo,a voice-driven cylindrical computer that sits on a table top and answers to the name Alexa,can(3)music tracks and radio stations,tell jokes,answer trivia questions and control smart(4)even before Christmas it was already resident in about 4%o of American house holds.Voice assistants are(5)in smartphones,too:Apple's Siri(6)over 2 billion commands a week,and 20%of Google(7)on Android powered handsets in America are input by voice Dictating e-mails and text messages now works(8)enough to be useful.Why type when you can talk This is a huge shift.Simple(9)it may seem,voice has the power to transform computing,by providing a natural means of interaction.Windows,icons and menus,and then touchscreens,were welcomed as more(10)ways to deal with computers than entering complex keyboard(11).But being able to talk to computers(12)the need for the abstraction of a user interface"at all(13)mobile phones were more than existing phones without wires,and cars were more than carri-ages without horses,so computers without screens and keyboards have the(14)to be more useful and powerful than people can imagine today Voice will not wholly(15)other forms of input and output.Sometimes it will remain more(16)to converse with a machine by typing rather than talking.But voice is destined to(17)growing share of people's interactions with the technology around them,from washing machines that tell you how much of the cycle they have left to virtual assistants in corporate call-centres.(18)to reach its full potential,the technology requires(19)breakthroughs-and a resolution of the(20)questions it raises around the trade-off between convenience and privacy(20)选?A.strange B.unique C.special D.tricky